TQt bindings for Perl
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libtqt-perl/doc/en/PerlTQt.pod

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=head1 Programming PerlTQt
B<Germain Garand>
This document describes a set of Perl bindings for the TQt toolkit. Contact
the author at <germain@ebooksfrance.com>
=head1 Introduction
PerlTQt-3 is Ashley Winters' full featured object oriented interface to
L<Trolltech|"http://www.trolltech.com">'s C++ TQt toolkit v3.0.
It is based on the
L<SMOKE|"http://webcvs.kde.org/cgi-bin/cvsweb.cgi/kdebindings/smoke">
library, a language independent low-level wrapper generated from TQt headers by
Richard Dale's
L<kalyptus|"http://webcvs.kde.org/cgi-bin/cvsweb.cgi/kdebindings/kalyptus">
thanks to David Faure's module.
This document describes the principles of PerlTQt programming.
It assumes you have some basic Perl Object Oriented programming knowledge.
Some C++ knowledge is recommended but not required.
It would mostly help you to find your way through L<TQt's
excellent documentation|"http://doc.trolltech.com"> which is our
ultimate and only reference.
If TQt is installed on your system, then you most probably
also have its documentation. Try the C<$TQTDIR/bin/assistant> program.
=head1 Installation
=head2 Requirements
To compile and use PerlTQt, you'll need :
=over 4
=item *
a POSIX system
=item *
GNU tools : automake(>=1.5), autoconf (>=2.13), aclocal...
=item *
L<Perl E<gt>= v5.6.0|"http://www.perl.org">
=item *
L<TQt E<gt>=
v3.0|"http://www.trolltech.com/developer/download/qt-x11.html">
=item *
L<SmokeTQt 1.2.1|"http://webcvs.kde.org/cgi-bin/cvsweb.cgi/kdebindings/smoke">
The SMOKE library (Scripting Meta Object Kompiler) is part of L<KDE|"http://www.kde.org">'s B<tdebindings> module.
You may want to check if a precompiled version of this module exists for your
system.
PerlTQt is packaged with its own copy, so you don't need to check it out.
=back
Perl and TQt's installation is out of the scope of this document. Please refer
to those projects' documentation.
=head2 Compilation
PerlTQt uses GNU's Autoconf framework. However, the standard ./configure script is preferably driven
by the Makefile.PL wrapper. All options are forwarded to ./configure :
perl Makefile.PL
If SMOKE is missing, C<configure> will generate its sources.
Then :
make
make install
This will install PerlTQt, Puic and Smoke (if needed), as well as the ptqtsh and ptqtapi utilities.
The preferred install location for SMOKE and Puic is in the KDE3 file system.
If you don't have KDE3 installed, specify a location with C<configure>'s
C<--prefix> option. e.g:
perl Makefile.PL --prefix=/usr
=head2 Troubleshooting and Configure Options
If Smoke's linking fails or your TQt library was built with very specific
options, run Makefile.PL again with:
perl Makefile.PL --with-threshold=0
When building smoke, configure will check for OpenGL and try to compile
support for it if it is properly installed and supported by TQt.
You may disable this checking with:
--disable-GL
Also, default behaviour is to prefer the Mesa GL library over a proprietary
implementation.
If your system features a proprietary OpenGL library, and you'd like to use
it, specify:
--without-Mesa
=head2 How to install PerlTQt with user rights
To install PerlTQt without super-user rights, simply follow this procedure:
=over 4
=item *
Perform a normal configuration, specifying as prefix a directory where you have write permissions :
perl Makefile.PL --prefix=~
The above would install the Smoke library in ~/lib and the puic binary in ~/bin
=item *
Reconfigure the Perl module so that it doesn't target the standard perl hierarchy:
cd PerlTQt
perl Makefile.PL PREFIX=~
cd ..
Beware : this is not the same Makefile.PL as above, but the one located in the ./PerlTQt
subdirectory
=item *
Compile and Install
make && make install
In order to use such an installation, you must tell to Perl where to find this extern hierarchy.
This can be done either on the command line:
perl -Mlib="~/local/lib/perl/5.x.x" program.pl
or at the top of your program:
use lib qw( ~/local/lib/perl/5.x.x );
"5.x.x" should be changed to whatever Perl version your system is running.
=back
=head1 Anatomy of PerlTQt
A typical TQt program using GUI components is based on an event loop.
This basically means that such a program is no more envisioned as a straight
flow where you would need to handle yourself every single events (such as a
mouse click or a key press).
Instead, you just create an B<Application> object, create the GUI components it
uses,
define what objects methods need to be called when an event occurs,
and then start the main event loop.
That's all!
TQt will handle all events and dispatch them to the correct subroutine.
Lets see how this process is implemented in a minimal PerlTQt program.
=head2 Hello World
1: use TQt;
2: my $a = TQt::Application(\@ARGV);
3: my $hello = TQt::PushButton("Hello World!", undef);
4: $hello->resize(160, 25);
5: $a->setMainWidget($hello);
6: $hello->show;
7: exit $a->exec;
=for html
<br/>
<div class='image'><img src="../images/ex1.png"/></div>
This program first loads the TQt interface [line 1] and creates the application
object, passing it a reference to the command line arguments array C<@ARGV>
[l.2].
This application object is unique, and may later be accessed from
anywhere through the B<TQt::app()> pointer.
At line 3, we create a PushButton, which has no parent (i.e : it won't be
contained nor owned by another widget).
Therefore, we pass to the constructor an B<undef> value for the parent argument,
which is PerlTQt's way of passing a Null pointer.
After some layouting at [l.4], we tell the application object that our main
widget is this PushButton [l.5]... that way, it will know that closing the
window associated with this widget means : I<quit the application>.
Now the last steps are to make this widget visible (as opposed to
hidden, which is the default) by calling the B<show> method on it [l.6] and
to start the application loop [l.7].
B<Syntax elements summary :>
=over 4
=item 1
All TQt classes are accessed through the prefix B<TQt::>, which replaces the
initial B<Q> of TQt classes.
When browsing the L<TQt
documentation|"http://doc.trolltech.com>, you simply need to change the
name of classes so that B<TQFoo> reads B<TQt::Foo>.
=item 2
An object is created by calling the B<constructor> of the class. It has the
same name as the class itself.
You don't need to say C<new TQt::Foo> or C<TQt::Foo-E<gt>new()> as most Perl
programmers would have expected.
Instead, you just say :
my $object = TQt::<classname>(arg_1, ..., arg_n);
If you don't need to pass any argument to the constructor, simply say :
my $object = TQt::<classname>;
=item 3
Whenever you need to pass a Null pointer as an argument, use Perl's B<undef>
keyword. Do not pass zero.
Beware: this is by far the most common error in PerlTQt programs.
Pointers are arguments preceded by an B<*>
character in TQt's documentation (e.g: "C<TQWidget * widget>").
=back
=head2 Inheritance and Objects
Before we can discuss how Perl subroutines can be called back from TQt, we need
to introduce PerlTQt's inheritance mechanism.
PerlTQt was designed to couple as tightly as possible TQt's simplicity and Perl's
power and flexibility.
In order to achieve that goal, the classical Object Oriented Perl paradigm had
to be extended, much in the same way than TQt itself
had to extend C++'s paradigm with B<metaobjects>.
=head3 A Custom Widget
Lets rewrite the "Hello World!" program, this time using a custom version
of PushButton:
1: use strict;
2:
3: package Button;
4: use TQt;
5: use TQt::isa qw(TQt::PushButton);
6:
7: sub NEW
8: {
9: shift->SUPER::NEW(@_[0..2]);
10: resize(130, 40);
11: }
12:
13: 1;
14:
15: package main;
16:
17: use TQt;
18: use Button;
19:
20: my $a = TQt::Application(\@ARGV);
21: my $w = Button("Hello World!", undef);
22: $a->setMainWidget($w);
23: $w->show;
24: exit $a->exec;
Here, we want to create our own version of the PushButton widget.
Therefore, we create a new package for it [l.3] and import TQt [l.4].
We now want to declare our widget as subclassing PushButton.
This is done through the use of the C<TQt::isa> pragma [l.5], which accepts a
list of one or more parent TQt classes.
It is now time to create a B<constructor> for our new widget.
This is done by creating a subroutine called B<NEW> I<(note the capitalized
form, which differentate it from the usual "new" constructor. PerlTQt's NEW
constructor is called >B<implicitly>I< as can be seen on line 21)>.
Since we want our widget to call its parent's constructor first, we call the
B<superclass's constructor> (here: TQt::PushButton) on line 9, passing it all
arguments we received.
At this time, a class instance has been created and stored into a special
object holder named B<this> (not C<$this> but really just C<this>).
Each time you invoke a method from within your package, you may now
indifferently say C<method()> or C<this-E<gt>method()>;
=head3 Using Attributes
When building a new composite widget, you may just create its different
parts inside B<my> variables, since widgets are only deleted by their parents
and not necessarily when their container goes out of scope.
In other words, PerlTQt performs clever reference counting to prevent
indesirable deletion of objects.
Now, you'll often want to keep an access to those parts from anywhere inside
your package.
For this purpose, you may use the B<this> object's blessed hash, as is usual in Perl,
but that isn't really convenient and you don't have any compile time
checking...
Here come B<Attributes>. Attributes are data holders where you can
store any kind of properties for your object.
Declaring new attributes is done through the C<use TQt::attributes> pragma, as is
demonstrated in the following package implementation :
1: use strict;
2:
3: package Button;
4: use TQt;
5: use TQt::isa qw(TQt::PushButton);
6: use TQt::attributes qw(
7: itsTime
8: pData
9: );
10:
11: sub NEW
12: {
13: shift->SUPER::NEW(@_[0..2]);
14: itsTime = TQt::Time;
15: itsTime->start;
16: pData = " Foo ";
17: }
18:
19: sub resizeEvent
20: {
21: setText( "w: ". width() ." h: ". height() .
22: "\nt: ". itsTime->elapsed . pData );
23: }
24:
25: 1;
=for html
<br/>
<div class='image'><img src="../images/ex2.png"/></div>
An attribute itsTime is declared at line 7, and loaded with a C<TQt::Time> object
at line 14.
Since we reimplement the virtual function "resizeEvent" [l.19].
each time the main widget is resized, this function will be triggered and
our Button's text updated with values coming from the object [l.21] and from the
attributes we defined [l.22].
B<Recapitulation>
=over 4
=item *
In order to inherit a TQt class, a package must contain a
C<use TQt::isa> pragma.
e.g:
use TQt::isa "TQt::widget";
=item *
The object constructor is named B<NEW> and is implicitly called.
Thus you should not say :
my $o = MyButton->NEW("Hello");
But say :
my $o = MyButton("Hello");
=item *
Within a package, the current instance can be accessed through the B<this>
variable.
When a member function is called, arguments are loaded as usual in the B<@_>
array, but B<without> the object pointer itself.
Hence, you shouldn't say :
sub myMember
{
my $self = shift;
my $arg = shift;
$arg->doThat($self);
$self->doIt;
}
But :
sub myMember
{
my $arg = shift;
$arg->doThat(this);
doIt;
}
Furthermore, if you want to call a base class method from a derived class,
you'd use the specal attribute SUPER :
sub example
{
print "Now calling the base class\n";
SUPER->example(@_)
}
Note that the :
this->SUPER::Example(@_);
construct is also available, but will pass the object as first argument.
=item *
Whenever you need to store a contained object in your package, you may define it
as an B<Attribute> :
use TQt::attributes qw(
firstAttribute
...
lastAttribute);
and then use it as a convenient accessor :
firstAttribute = myContainedWidget( this );
firstAttribute->resize( 100, 100 );
=item *
To reimplement a B<virtual function>, simply create a B<sub> with the
same name in your object.
Existing virtual functions are marked as such in TQt's documentation
(they are prefixed with the "virtual" keyword).
You can inspect what virtual function names are being called by TQt at runtime by
putting a C<use TQt::debug qw( virtual )> statement at the top of your program.
=back
=head2 Signals and Slots
We'll now learn how TQt objects can communicate with each other,
allowing an event occuring, for instance, in a given widget to trigger the
execution of one or several subroutines anywhere inside your program.
Most other toolkits use callbacks for that purpose, but TQt has a much more
powerful and flexible mechanism called B<Signals and Slots>.
Signals and slots are used for communication between objects.
This can be thought off as something similar to the wiring between several Hi-fI
components : an amplificator, for instance, has a set of output signals, wich are
emitted wether a listening device is connected to them or not. Also, a tape
recorder deck can start to record when it receives a signal wired to it's input
slot, and it doesn't need to know that this signal is also received by a CD
recorder device, or listened through headphones.
A TQt component behaves just like that. It has several output B<Signals> and
several input B<Slots> - and each signal can be connected to an unlimited number
of listening slots of the same type, wether they are inside or outside the
component.
The general syntax of this connection process is either :
TQt::Object::connect( sender, TQT_SIGNAL 'mysignal(arg_type)',
receiver, TQT_SLOT 'myslot(arg_type)');
or
myObject->connect( sender, TQT_SIGNAL 'mysignal(arg_type)', TQT_SLOT
'myslot(arg_type)');
This mechanism can be extended at will by the declaration of custom Signals and
Slots, through the C<use TQt::signals> and C<use TQt::slots> pragma
(see also the other syntax, later on).
Each declared slot will call the corresponding subroutine in your object,
each declared signal can be raised through the B<emit> keyword.
B<As an example, lets rewrite again our Button package :>
1: use strict;
2:
3: package Button;
4: use TQt;
5: use TQt::isa qw(TQt::PushButton);
6: use TQt::attributes qw(itsTime);
7: use TQt::slots
8: wasClicked => [],
9: change => ['int', 'int'];
10: use TQt::signals
11: changeIt => ['int', 'int'];
12:
13: sub NEW
14: {
15: shift->SUPER::NEW(@_[0..2]);
16: itsTime = TQt::Time;
17: itsTime->start;
18: this->connect(this, TQT_SIGNAL 'clicked()', TQT_SLOT 'wasClicked()');
19: this->connect(this, TQT_SIGNAL 'changeIt(int,int)', TQT_SLOT 'change(int,int)');
20: }
21:
22: sub wasClicked
23: {
24: my $w = width();
25: my $h = height();
26: setText( "w: $w h: $h\nt: ". itsTime->elapsed );
27: emit changeIt($w, $h);
28: }
29:
30: sub change
31: {
32: my ($w, $h) = @_;
33: print STDERR "w: $w h: $h \n";
34: }
35:
36: 1;
In this package, we define two extra slots and one extra signal.
We know from the TQt Documentation that a clicked PushButton emits a C<clicked()>
signal, so we connect it to our new slot at line 18.
We also connect our signal C<changeIt> to our own C<change> slot- which is
quite stupid, but as an example.
Now, whenever our Button is clicked, the C<clicked()> signal is raised and
triggers the C<wasClicked()> slot. C<wasClicked> then proceeds to emit
the C<changeIt(int,int)> signal [l.27], hence triggering the C<change(int,int)>
slot with two arguments.
Finally, since PerlTQt-3.008, an alternative syntax can be used to declare Signals and Slots:
sub a_slot : TQT_SLOT(int, TQString)
{
$int = shift;
$string = shift;
# do something
}
and
sub a_signal : TQT_SIGNAL(TQString);
This syntax is perfectly compatible with the traditional
C<use TQt::signals> and C<use TQt::slots> declarations.
Eventually, it can prove good programming practice to mix both syntaxes, by first declaring
Signals/Slots with C<use TQt::slots/signals>, then repeat this declaration
in the actual implementation with the second syntax.
Declarations will be checked for consistency at compile time, and any mismatch
in arguments would trigger a warning.
=head1 RAD prototyping with TQt Designer and Puic
=head2 Introduction
=over 4
=item * Note:
As of PerlTQt-3.008, a separate PerlTQt plugin for TQt Designer is available,
bringing full integration, syntax highlighting, code completion and allowing to run/debug your PerlTQt project
entirely from the Designer GUI.
Nevertheless, the below is still accurate with regard to puic command line interaction
and with regard to using TQt Designer I<without> the specific plugin.
=back
As efficient and intuitive as TQt can be, building a complete GUI from scratch
is often a tedious task.
Hopefully, TQt comes with a very sophisticated GUI Builder named TQt
Designer, which is close to a complete integrated development environment.
It features Project management, drag'n drop GUI building, a complete object
browser, graphical interconnection of signals and slots, and much much more.
TQt Designer's output is XML which can be parsed by several command line tools,
among whose is B<puic> (the PerlTQt User Interface Compiler).
Assuming you have already built an interface file with the Designer,
translating it to a PerlTQt program is simply a matter of issuing
one command :
puic -x -o program.pl program.ui
This will generate the package defined in your ui file and a basic main package
for testing purposes.
You may prefer :
puic -o package.pm program.ui
This will only generate the package, which can then be used by a separate
program.
=head2 Embedding Images
If you need to B<embed images or icons>, it can be done in two ways
:
=over 4
=item * Inline embedding
For this, you need to check the "Edit->Form Settings->Pixmaps->Save inline"
checkbox inside TQt Designer.
Then : puic -x -o F<program.pl> F<program.ui>
=item * Image Collection
This option is more complex but also far more powerful and clean.
puic -o F<Collection.pm> -embed F<unique_identifier> F<image-1> ... F<image-n>
Then add a C<use Collection.pm> statement to your program's main package.
If you've created a project file in TQt Designer, and added all images
you want to group (through "Project->Image Collection"), you'll find all those
images inside the directory where your project file (*.pro) is stored, under
/images.
You can then generate the corresponding image collection by issuing :
puic -o F<Collection.pm> -embed F<identifier> ../images/*
You can use as many image collections as you want in a program. Simply add a
B<use> statement for each collection.
=back
=head2 Working With B<.ui> Files
It will often happen that you need to regenerate your user interface -either
because you changed your initial design, or you want to extend it.
Thus writing your program's code straight in the auto-generated Perl file is
quite a bad idea.
You'd run constantly the risk of overwriting your handcrafted code, or end
up doing lot of copy-paste.
Instead, you may :
=over 4
=item * Write slots implementation in the Designer
In TQt Designer, select the I<Source> tab of the B<Object Explorer>.
There you can see a tree-like representation of your classes.
Now if you double-click on the I<Slots/public> entry,
you are prompted with a dialog where you can create a new custom slot for
your module.
Once this is done, the new slot appear inside the B<Object Explorer> tree and
clicking on it will bring you to a B<E<lt>Your ClassE<gt>.ui.h> file where you can write
the actual implementation of your slot.
Keeping all the defaults, it should look like this :
void Form1::newSlot()
{
}
The slot declaration is actually C++ code, but simply ignore it and write
your Perl code straight between the two braces, paying special attention to
indent it at least by one space.
void Form1::newSlot()
{
print STDERR "Hello world from Form1::newSlot();
if(this->foo())
{
# do something
}
}
All Perl code written this way will be saved to the ui.h file, and B<puic> will take care of
placing it back in the final program.
Here, after running B<puic> on the Form1.ui file, you'd have:
sub newSlot
{
print STDERR "Hello world from Form1::newSlot();
if(this->foo())
{
# do something
}
}
=item * Subclassing your GUI
By using B<puic>'s I<-subimpl> option, you may generate a derived module
inheriting your original user interface.
You'd typically generate the derived module once, and write any handcrafted
code in this child.
Then, whenever you need to modify your GUI module, simply regenerate the
parent module, and your child will inherit those changes.
To generate the base module :
puic -o Form1.pm form1.ui
(do this as often as needed, never edit by hand)
To generate the child :
puic -o Form2.pm -subimpl Form2 form1.ui
or
puic -o program.pl -x -subimpl Form2 form1.ui
(do this once and work on the resulting file)
=back
=head1 More development tools
PerlTQt comes bundled with two simple programs that can help you to find your way through
the TQt API:
=head2 ptqtapi
ptqtapi is a commandline driven introspection tool.
usage: ptqtapi [-r <re>] [<class>]
options:
-r <re> : find all functions matching regular expression/keyword <re>
-i : together with -r, performs a case insensitive search
-v : print PerlTQt and TQt versions
-h : print this help message
e.g:
$>ptqtapi -ir 'setpoint.* int'
void TQCanvasLine::setPoints(int, int, int, int)
void TQPointArray::setPoint(uint, int, int)
=head2 ptqtsh
B<ptqtsh> is a graphical shell that can be used to test the API interactively.
It is fairly self explanatory and includes an interactive example (C<Help-E<gt>Example>)
=for html
<br/>
<div class='image'><img src="../images/ptqtsh.png"/></div>
=head1 Known Limitations
Templated classes aren't available yet (classes derived from templated classes are).
=head1 Credits
PerlTQt-3 is (c) 2002 Ashley Winters (and (c) 2003 Germain Garand)
Kalyptus and the Smoke generation engine are (c) David Faure and Richard Dale
Puic is (c) TrollTech AS., Phil Thompson and Germain Garand,
The mentioned software is released under the GNU Public Licence v.2 or later.
=head1 Appendix 1 : C++ conventions and their Perl counterpart
Whenever you want to use a class/method described in TQt's
L<documentation|"http://doc.trolltech.com"> (see also the 'assistant' program bundled with TQt)
from PerlTQt, you need to follow some simple translation rules.
=over 4
=item Classnames
=over 4
=item *
All classnames are changed from a B<Q> prefix in TQt to a B<TQt::> prefix
in Perl.
e.g: TQComboBox is named TQt::ComboBox within PerlTQt.
=back
=item Functions
=over 4
=item *
Functions referenced as B<static> are accessed directly, and not through
an object. Thus the static function Foo in class TQBar would be accessed from
PerlTQt as
TQt::Bar::Foo( arg-1,...,arg-n);
The only notable exceptions are :
tqApp() will map to TQt::app()
tqVersion() will map to TQt::version() # not really needed anymore: we have tqVersion(). See Global Functions below.
=item *
Functions referenced as B<members> or B<Signals> are accessed through an object
with the B<-E<gt>> operator.
e.g:
$widget->show;
There are no fundamental differences between methods and signals, however PerlTQt
provides the B<emit> keyword as a convenient mnemonic, so that it is clear you
are emitting a signal :
emit $button->clicked;
=back
=item Arguments
=over 4
=item * By value
When an argument isn't preceded by the B<&> or B<*> character, it is passed by
value. For all basic types such as int, char, float and double, PerlTQt will
automatically convert litteral and scalar values to the corresponding C++ type.
Thus for a constructor prototype written as follow in the documentation :
TQSize ( int w, int h )
You'd say :
TQt::Size(8, 12);
=item * By reference
When an argument is preceded by the B<&> character, it means a reference to an
object or to a type is expected. You may either provide a variable name or a
temporary object :
$keyseq = TQt::keySequence( &TQt::CTRL + &TQt::F3 );
$widget->setAccel( $keyseq );
or
$widget->setAccel(TQt::keySequence( &TQt::CTRL + &TQt::F3 );
If the argument isn't qualified as B<const> (constant), it means the passed
object may be altered during the process - you must then provide a variable.
=item * By pointer
When an argument is preceded by the B<*> character, it means a
pointer to an object or to a type is expected. You may provide a variable
name or the Perl B<undef> keyword for a Null pointer.
Similarly, if the argument isn't B<const>, the passed object may be altered by
the method call.
=back
=item Enumerations
Enumerations are sort of named aliases for numeric values that would be hard to
remember otherwise.
A C++ example would be :
enum Strange { Apple, Orange, Lemon }
where C<Strange> is the generic enumeration name, and C<Apple>, C<Orange>,
C<Lemon> its possible values, which are only aliases for numbers (here 0, 1
and 2).
Access to enumerations values in Perl TQt is very similar to a static function
call. In fact, it B<is> a static function call.
Therefore, since you probably want to avoid some readability problems, we
recommend the use of the alternate function call syntax : C<&function>.
Lets now go back to our C<Strange> example.
If its definition was encountered in the class C<TQFruits>, you'd write from
PerlTQt :
$apple_plus_orange = &TQt::Fruit::Apple + &TQt::Fruit::Orange;
=item Operators
Within PerlTQt, B<operators overloading> works transparently.
If a given operator is overloaded in a TQt class (which means using it triggers a custom method)
it will behave identically in PerlTQt.
Beware though that due to limitations of the Smoke binding library, not all overloaded operators are
available in PerlTQt.
You can check the availability of a given operator by using the ptqtapi program.
Also, due to outstanding differences between C++'s and Perl's object paradigm, the copy constructor operator (a.k.a '=')
has been disabled.
e.g-1: '+=' overload
$p1 = TQt::Point(10, 10)
$p2 = TQt::Point(30,40)
$p2 += $p1; # $p2 becomes (40,50)
e.g-2: '<<' overload
$f = TQt::File("example");
$f->open( IO_WriteOnly ); # see 'Constants' below
$s = TQt::TextStream( $f );
$s << "What can I do with " << 12 << " apples?";
=item Constants
TQt doesn't use many constants, but there is at least one place where they are used : for setting
Input/Output flags on files.
In order to avoid the namespace pollution induced by global constants, PerlTQt group them in the B<TQt::constants> module.
For instance, requesting the importation of all IO constants into the current namespace would be done with:
use TQt::constants;
You may also import specific symbols:
use TQt::constants qw( IO_ReadOnly IO_WriteOnly );
=item Global Functions
TQt has also some utilitarian functions such as bitBlt, tqCompress, etc.
Those were global scope functions and have been grouped in a common namespace:
C<TQt::GlobalSpace>.
Hence, you shall access this namespace either with a fully qualified call:
TQt::GlobalSpace::tqUncompress( $buffer )
Or directly, after importation in the current namespace:
use TQt::GlobalSpace;
tqUncompress( $buffer )
Of course, you may selectively import a few functions:
use TQt::GlobalSpace qw( tqUncompress bitBlt )
B<Note:> GlobalSpace has also operators, such has the one performing an addition on two
TQt::Point(). Those operators are called automatically.
e.g:
$p1 = TQt::Point(10, 10) + TQt::Point(20, 20)
=back
=head1 Appendix 2 : Internationalization
PerlTQt handles internationalization by always converting B<TQString> back to B<utf8> in Perl.
Conversions from Perl strings to TQStrings are made according to context :
=over 4
=item * If the Perl string is already utf8-encoded
then the string will be converted straight to TQString.
This is the most convenient and seemless way of internationalizing your application. Typically, one would just enable
the use of utf8 in source code with the C<use utf8> pragma and write its application with an utf8 aware editor.
=item * If the string isn't tagged as utf8, and the B<use locale> pragma is not set
then the string will be converted to TQString's utf8 from B<ISO-Latin-1>.
=item * If the string isn't tagged as utf8 and the B<use locale> pragma is set
then the string will be converted to TQString's utf8 according to the currently set B<locale>.
=back
Once a string contains utf8, you can convert it back to any locale by setting up B<converters> :
$tr1=TQt::TextCodec::codecForLocale(); # this one will use current locale
$tr2=TQt::TextCodec::codecForName("KOI8-R"); # that one forces a specific locale (Russian)
print $tr1->fromUnicode(TQt::DateTime::currentDateTime()->toString)."\n\n";
print $tr2->fromUnicode($my_utf8_string);
Or, with Perl >= 5.8.0, you may use Perl's B<Encode> modules (see C<perldoc Encode>).
=head3 disabling utf-8
Developers who don't want to use UTF-8 or want to temporarily disable UTF-8 marshalling
for handling legacy programs may use the B<use bytes> pragma (and the corresponding B<no bytes>).
Within the scope of this pragma, TQStrings are marshalled back to ISO-Latin1 (default) or to your locale
(if B<use locale> has been set).
Frivole use of this pragma is strongly discouraged as it ruins worldwide standardization efforts.
=head1 Appendix 3 : Debugging Channels
The B<TQt::debug> module offers various debugging channels/features.
use TQt::debug;
use TQt::debug qw|calls autoload verbose|;
With the simple C<use TQt::debug> statement, the B<verbose> and B<ambiguous> channels are activated.
If you specify a list of channels within the use statement, then only the specified channels will be enabled.
B<Available channels :>
=over 4
=item * ambiguous
Check if method and function calls are ambiguous, and tell which of the alternatives
was finally elected.
=item * verbose
Enable more verbose debugging.
Together with B<ambiguous>, tell you the nearest matches in case
a method or function call fails.
e.g:
use TQt;
use TQt::debug;
$a= TQt::Application(\@ARGV);
$a->libraryPath("foo");
--- No method to call for :
TQApplication::libraryPath('foo')
Closer candidates are :
static void TQApplication::addLibraryPath(const TQString&)
static TQStringList TQApplication::libraryPaths()
static void TQApplication::removeLibraryPath(const TQString&)
static void TQApplication::setLibraryPaths(const TQStringList&)
=item * calls
For every call, tell what corresponding TQt method is called
(detailing the arguments if B<verbose> is on).
=item * autoload
Track the intermediate code between a method invocation in Perl
and its resolution to either a TQt or Perl call.
=item * gc
Give informations about garbage collection
whenever a TQt object is deleted and/or a Perl object is destroyed
=item * virtual
Report whenever a virtual function tries to access its Perl
reimplementation (wether it exists or not).
=item * all
Enable all channels
=back
=head1 Appendix 4 : Marshallers
A marshaller is a piece of "glue code" translating a given datatype to another.
Within PerlTQt, most TQt objects keep their object nature, so that one may invoke methods on them.
However, some classes and datatypes map so naturally to some Perl types that keeping their object nature would
would feel unnatural and clumsy.
For instance, instead of returning a TQt::StringList object, which would require an iterator to retrieve its content,
PerlTQt will translate it to an array reference containing all the object's strings.
In the other way, instead of providing a TQt::StringList object as an argument of a method, one would simply
provide the reference to an array of Perl strings.
Here is the list of Marshallers as of PerlTQt-3.008 :
-----------------------------------------------------------------
float, double <=> Perl real (NV)
char, uchar, int, uint, enum
long, ulong, short, ushort <=> Perl integer (IV)
TQString, -&, -* => Perl string (utf8)
TQString, -&, -* <= Perl string (utf8 or iso-latin1 or locale)
TQCString, -&, -* <=> Perl string (utf8 or bytes, according to content or "bytes" pragma)
TQByteArray, -&, -* <=> Perl string (bytes)
TQStringList, -&, -* => Reference to an array of Perl strings (utf8)
TQString, -&, -* => Perl string (utf8 or iso-latin1 or locale)
int&, -* <=> Perl integer (IV)
bool&, -* <=> Perl boolean
char* <=> Perl string (bytes)
char** <= Reference to an array of Perl strings (bytes)
uchar* <= Perl string (bytes)
TQRgb* <= Reference to an array of Perl integers (IV)
TQCOORD* <= Reference to an array of Perl integers (IV)
void* <=> Reference to a Perl integer (IV)
TQValueList<int>, - *, - & <=> Reference to an array of Perl integers (IV)
TQCanvasItemList, - *, - & => Reference to an array of TQt::CanvasItem
TQWidgetList, - *, - & <=> Reference to an array of TQt::Widget
TQObjectList, - *, - & <=> Reference to an array of TQt::Object
TQFileInfoList, - *, - & <=> Reference to an array of TQt::FileInfo
TQPtrList<TQTab>, - *, - & <=> Reference to an array of TQt::Tab
TQPtrList<TQToolBar>, - *, - & <=> Reference to an array of TQt::ToolBar
TQPtrList<TQNetworkOperation>, - *, - & <=> Reference to an array of TQt::NetworkOperation
TQPtrList<TQDockWindow>, - *, - & <=> Reference to an array of TQt::DockWindow
(TQUObject*)