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  1. GNU Free Documentation License
  2. Version 1.2, November 2002
  3. Copyright (C) 2000,2001,2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
  4. 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA
  5. Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
  6. of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
  7. 0. PREAMBLE
  8. The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other
  9. functional and useful document "free" in the sense of freedom: to
  10. assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it,
  11. with or without modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially.
  12. Secondarily, this License preserves for the author and publisher a way
  13. to get credit for their work, while not being considered responsible
  14. for modifications made by others.
  15. This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative
  16. works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It
  17. complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft
  18. license designed for free software.
  19. We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free
  20. software, because free software needs free documentation: a free
  21. program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the
  22. software does. But this License is not limited to software manuals;
  23. it can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or
  24. whether it is published as a printed book. We recommend this License
  25. principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference.
  27. This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium, that
  28. contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be
  29. distributed under the terms of this License. Such a notice grants a
  30. world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration, to use that
  31. work under the conditions stated herein. The "Document", below,
  32. refers to any such manual or work. Any member of the public is a
  33. licensee, and is addressed as "you". You accept the license if you
  34. copy, modify or distribute the work in a way requiring permission
  35. under copyright law.
  36. A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the
  37. Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with
  38. modifications and/or translated into another language.
  39. A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section of
  40. the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the
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  49. The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose titles
  50. are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice
  51. that says that the Document is released under this License. If a
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  53. allowed to be designated as Invariant. The Document may contain zero
  54. Invariant Sections. If the Document does not identify any Invariant
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  56. The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are listed,
  57. as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that
  58. the Document is released under this License. A Front-Cover Text may
  59. be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover Text may be at most 25 words.
  60. A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy,
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  82. The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself,
  83. plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material
  84. this License requires to appear in the title page. For works in
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  86. the text near the most prominent appearance of the work's title,
  87. preceding the beginning of the body of the text.
  88. A section "Entitled XYZ" means a named subunit of the Document whose
  89. title either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses following
  90. text that translates XYZ in another language. (Here XYZ stands for a
  91. specific section name mentioned below, such as "Acknowledgements",
  92. "Dedications", "Endorsements", or "History".) To "Preserve the Title"
  93. of such a section when you modify the Document means that it remains a
  94. section "Entitled XYZ" according to this definition.
  95. The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice which
  96. states that this License applies to the Document. These Warranty
  97. Disclaimers are considered to be included by reference in this
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  99. implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and has
  100. no effect on the meaning of this License.
  102. You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either
  103. commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the
  104. copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License applies
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  109. compensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large enough
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  115. printed covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and the
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  124. the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated
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  142. It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the
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  144. them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document.
  146. You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under
  147. the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release
  148. the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the Modified
  149. Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing distribution
  150. and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy
  151. of it. In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version:
  152. A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct
  153. from that of the Document, and from those of previous versions
  154. (which should, if there were any, be listed in the History section
  155. of the Document). You may use the same title as a previous version
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  157. B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities
  158. responsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified
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  160. Document (all of its principal authors, if it has fewer than five),
  161. unless they release you from this requirement.
  162. C. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the
  163. Modified Version, as the publisher.
  164. D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.
  165. E. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications
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  167. F. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice
  168. giving the public permission to use the Modified Version under the
  169. terms of this License, in the form shown in the Addendum below.
  170. G. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections
  171. and required Cover Texts given in the Document's license notice.
  172. H. Include an unaltered copy of this License.
  173. I. Preserve the section Entitled "History", Preserve its Title, and add
  174. to it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and
  175. publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If
  176. there is no section Entitled "History" in the Document, create one
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  183. it was based on. These may be placed in the "History" section.
  184. You may omit a network location for a work that was published at
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  187. K. For any section Entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications",
  188. Preserve the Title of the section, and preserve in the section all
  189. the substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements
  190. and/or dedications given therein.
  191. L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document,
  192. unaltered in their text and in their titles. Section numbers
  193. or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.
  194. M. Delete any section Entitled "Endorsements". Such a section
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  196. N. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled "Endorsements"
  197. or to conflict in title with any Invariant Section.
  198. O. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.
  199. If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or
  200. appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material
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  202. of these sections as invariant. To do this, add their titles to the
  203. list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version's license notice.
  204. These titles must be distinct from any other section titles.
  205. You may add a section Entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains
  206. nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various
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  208. been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a
  209. standard.
  210. You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a
  211. passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list
  212. of Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of
  213. Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or
  214. through arrangements made by) any one entity. If the Document already
  215. includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or
  216. by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of,
  217. you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit
  218. permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.
  219. The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License
  220. give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or
  221. imply endorsement of any Modified Version.
  223. You may combine the Document with other documents released under this
  224. License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified
  225. versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the
  226. Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and
  227. list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its
  228. license notice, and that you preserve all their Warranty Disclaimers.
  229. The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and
  230. multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single
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  232. different contents, make the title of each such section unique by
  233. adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original
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  235. Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of
  236. Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work.
  237. In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled "History"
  238. in the various original documents, forming one section Entitled
  239. "History"; likewise combine any sections Entitled "Acknowledgements",
  240. and any sections Entitled "Dedications". You must delete all sections
  241. Entitled "Endorsements".
  243. You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents
  244. released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this
  245. License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in
  246. the collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for
  247. verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects.
  248. You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute
  249. it individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this
  250. License into the extracted document, and follow this License in all
  251. other respects regarding verbatim copying of that document.
  253. A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate
  254. and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or
  255. distribution medium, is called an "aggregate" if the copyright
  256. resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the legal rights
  257. of the compilation's users beyond what the individual works permit.
  258. When the Document is included in an aggregate, this License does not
  259. apply to the other works in the aggregate which are not themselves
  260. derivative works of the Document.
  261. If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these
  262. copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half of
  263. the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on
  264. covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the
  265. electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic form.
  266. Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket the whole
  267. aggregate.
  269. Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may
  270. distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4.
  271. Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special
  272. permission from their copyright holders, but you may include
  273. translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the
  274. original versions of these Invariant Sections. You may include a
  275. translation of this License, and all the license notices in the
  276. Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also include
  277. the original English version of this License and the original versions
  278. of those notices and disclaimers. In case of a disagreement between
  279. the translation and the original version of this License or a notice
  280. or disclaimer, the original version will prevail.
  281. If a section in the Document is Entitled "Acknowledgements",
  282. "Dedications", or "History", the requirement (section 4) to Preserve
  283. its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the actual
  284. title.
  286. You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except
  287. as expressly provided for under this License. Any other attempt to
  288. copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Document is void, and will
  289. automatically terminate your rights under this License. However,
  290. parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under this
  291. License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such
  292. parties remain in full compliance.
  294. The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions
  295. of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new
  296. versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may
  297. differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. See
  299. Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number.
  300. If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this
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  302. following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or
  303. of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the
  304. Free Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version
  305. number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not
  306. as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.
  307. ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents
  308. To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of
  309. the License in the document and put the following copyright and
  310. license notices just after the title page:
  311. Copyright (c) YEAR YOUR NAME.
  312. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
  313. under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2
  314. or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
  315. with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts.
  316. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU
  317. Free Documentation License".
  318. If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts,
  319. replace the "with...Texts." line with this:
  320. with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with the
  321. Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts being LIST.
  322. If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other
  323. combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the
  324. situation.
  325. If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we
  326. recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of
  327. free software license, such as the GNU General Public License,
  328. to permit their use in free software.